Jerzy Brzęczek’s men will also take on Hungary, Albania, Andorra and San Marino in the qualifiers for football’s biggest prize.
The draw took place in Zurich on Monday evening.
The qualification stage will run from March to November 2021, while the World Cup will be held from November 21 to December 18, 2022.
Speaking about Group I, Brzęczek said after Monday's draw: "As far as the level of the difficulty is concerned, this is a moderate group. England are by far the favourites.”
He added: “Hungary is making amazing progress… The Albanians – a very uncomfortable opponent. Of course, looking at the Andorra and San Marino squads, they are theoretically weaker teams."
Brzęczek took over as Poland manager in the summer of 2018 after the national squad’s early departure from the World Cup in Russia.
Poland failed to advance to the knockout phase of the competition after losing 1-2 to Senegal and 0-3 to Colombia in the group stage. The Poles won their final game, beating Japan 1-0, but finished bottom of their Group H.
Poland finished third in the 1974 World Cup in West Germany and were also third in Spain in 1982.