Registration for about 460,000 people born in 1952 opened at 6 a.m. on Thursday.
All citizens in this age group will receive the AstraZeneca vaccine, according to officials.
Later this month, those born from 1953 to 1956 will be able to follow suit.
Poland in January began administering COVID-19 vaccines to citizens over 70.
People can send a text message to sign up for a shot. They can also go online to register or call a 989 vaccination hotline to schedule an appointment.
Direct reservations at vaccination sites are possible, but officials have advised people against visiting in person to limit the risk of exposure.
Around 6,000 vaccination sites are available to citizens as the country rolls out its COVID-19 inoculation programme, according to the prime minister's top aide, Michał Dworczyk, who is spearheading the drive.