Asked by state news agency PAP if his governing conservative Law and Justice (PiS) party was planning to take Poland out of the EU, Kaczyński said that "there will not be any Polexit whatsoever."
He added that "such claims" were "a propaganda trick," employed "repeatedly" by his party's political opponents.
"We see Poland's future unequivocally in the EU, but want to resolve the crisis currently besetting the bloc," Kaczyński said in the interview, which was published on Wednesday.
He argued that the EU's treaties "must be made more specific to ensure member states are treated equally."
At the moment, the bloc's heavyweights, "especially Germany," are using the EU for their own ends, "which we must oppose," Kaczyński told the Polish news agency.
Such changes "won't be easy to make," he said, predicting that "the process could take years."
'We want to be part of EU'
"We want to be part of the EU, but also to maintain our sovereignty," Kaczyński stated.
He argued that "certain policy areas," such as justice administration, remained within the remit of member states and "cannot be interfered with in the way it is happening at the moment."
Asked if he was worried Brussels had not yet approved Warsaw's post-pandemic National Recovery Plan, Kaczyński responded: "Naturally I would prefer for the document to have been accepted by now, but to my knowledge, there are no policy objections to it."
Kaczyński added that, despite the EU's "complex current situation," he remained confident "there is every chance the plan will be approved shortly."
The bloc's acceptance of the national document is necessary for Poland to be able to receive the EU's post-pandemic recovery funds.
Polish government spokesman Piotr Müller said last week the country had no plans of leaving the European Union, but sought to play an active role in the bloc.
Müller's statement came after Ryszard Terlecki, a senior Law and Justice lawmaker, told an international business conference at the start of this month that Poland could be forced to "search for drastic solutions" if the EU did not take on "a shape that is acceptable" to Warsaw.
According to some commentators, Terlecki was implying Poland could make an exit.