The drive, called Operation Smog, saw officers testing cars suspected of breaching emissions standards.
Drivers breaking the rules faced having their car registration documents confiscated.
"Our observations show that the worst punishment for drivers violating environmental protection standards is not even the fine of PLN 500 (EUR 117, USD 126), but the fact that without a registration document they cannot drive away in their car from the place where they were checked,” said Radosław Kobryś from the road traffic department of national police headquarters.
According to a report by the World Health Organisation (WHO), out of the 50 European cities most affected by smog, 33 are in Poland.
The WHO has estimated that around 50,000 Poles die every year due to illness caused by air pollution.
Scientists estimate that between 60 and 80 percent of air pollution in big Polish cities comes from road transport, public broadcaster Polish Radio’s IAR news agency reported last year.