Officers carried out checks at nearly 8,000 shopping centres, and additionally on public transport, at sites which hold wedding receptions and at nightclubs, said police spokesman Mariusz Ciarka.
Poland went into a partial national lockdown for three weeks from Saturday amid a resurgence of COVID-19 cases.
Hotels, cinemas, theatres and sports facilities nationwide have been told to shut, while shopping malls are only allowed to sell essential items.
Poles are required to cover their nose and mouth with a face mask in public.
Poland on Tuesday reported 16,741 new coronavirus infections and 396 more deaths, bringing its total number of cases during the pandemic to 2,089,869 and fatalities to 49,761.
Over the weekend, police stepped in 7,000 times after finding COVID-19 rules were being breached, Deputy Interior Minister Maciej Wąsik said on Monday.