Szczerski was in June named as Poland's new Permanent Representative to the United Nations. He is due to take up his duties in New York in mid-August.
Meanwhile, diplomat Jakub Kumoch will replace him in his role as head of President Andrzej Duda's International Policy Office.
The office, whose establishment Szczerski personally oversaw, aims to support the Polish head of state in his work in the international arena.
Kumoch until now served as Poland's ambassador to Turkey. He was also his country's envoy to Lichtenstein and Switzerland from 2016 to 2020.
He helped produce a book about Polish World War II diplomats who set out to save 8,000 to 10,000 Jews from the Holocaust by providing them with fake Latin American identity documents.
The book highlights the legacy of Aleksander Ładoś, a Polish diplomat who during the war led an informal group based in Bern, Switzerland, that fabricated passports for Jews.
The so-called Ładoś List gives details of people of Jewish origin who received fake passports from Polish diplomats aiming to save them from the German Nazis.