The blast happened at around 4 p.m. due to a leak from a water pipeline some 500 metres underground, Polish state news agency PAP reported.
One miner has been confirmed dead, and two more have been taken to hospital with injuries, according to officials.
As of Tuesday evening, three more mine workers remained at the scene of the explosion, cut off from contact, the PAP news agency reported.
A rescue operation was underway, officials said.
President Andrzej Duda said his "thoughts and prayers are with the families and loved ones of the victims and with the mining community."
In a post on the X social media platform, the head of state also thanked rescue workers for their efforts.
Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki also offered his condolences, saying the government was "providing support to the families."
Source: IAR, PAP, interia.pl