The long-planned deployment will involve up to 80 personnel and an M28 Bryza reconnaissance aircraft to support Turkey with maritime patrols over the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A send-off ceremony for the first group of Polish troops was held at Gdynia-Babie Doły Airport on Tuesday.
The mission will work alongside NATO's naval groups in the region.
Poland's Defence Minister Mariusz Blaszczak said in a statement that "Polish soldiers are present where allied solidarity requires it."
He added: "They carry out tasks of various nature, ensuring stability and security, as well as transferring their knowledge and skills."
Blaszczak also said that "joining the NATO mission in Turkey is another expression of the fact that Poland treats its alliances seriously and works for security on a global scale."
NATO spokeswoman Oana Lungescu said that "Poland's deployment in support of Turkey demonstrates NATO solidarity in action."
She added that these maritime patrols will help increase the alliance's "situational awareness in the region, and enhance our shared security."
NATO member states in 2015 agreed on a package of Tailored Assurance Measures for Turkey to help it respond to a volatile security environment, according to the nato.int website.
These measures include an increased presence of surveillance aircraft in the region, increased maritime activities in the eastern Mediterranean, intelligence and reconnaissance activities, and information sharing.
Source: PAP, gov.pl, nato.int
Click on the 'Play' button above for an audio report