In the vote on Thursday, 227 MPs were in favour of the bill, while 214 were against the draft legislation and no one abstained, the state PAP news agency reported.
The bill, drafted by the Education and Science Ministry under Przemysław Czarnek, now heads to the upper house of parliament, the Senate, for further debate.
After the lower-house vote, Czarnek thanked lawmakers in a Twitter post "for approving the bill and strengthening the right of parents to bring up children in line with their own worldview, for de-politicising schools and for protecting children against depravity."
He described the vote as "a very important decision."
Under the bill, the powers of government-appointed school supervisors will be extended in a variety of ways.
Notably, a supervisor will be able to apply for the dismissal of a school principal if the latter fails to follow instructions.
In addition, extracurricular activities run by nongovernmental organisations in schools will require approval from a supervisor.
The bill also strengthens government oversight over non-publicly-owned schools, among other provisions, the PAP news agency reported.
Poland’s ruling conservatives have said the changes in the education system are necessary to protect children. According to critics, the new regulations could restrict access to teaching on LGBT and reproductive rights, as well as giving the governing party greater control over schools, the Reuters news agency reported.
Source: PAP, Reuters