The match kicks off at 8:45 p.m. at Fortuna Arena in the Czech capital.
The Poles, captained by star striker Robert Lewandowski, are looking to earn a morale-boosting win under their new Portuguese manager Fernando Santos.
Poland are ranked 22nd worldwide by football's governing body FIFA, while the Czech Republic are No. 38 in the FIFA table.
The Polish team will take on Albania in their next qualifying fixture on home turf in Warsaw on Monday.
Poland’s qualifying Group E also includes the Faroe Islands and Moldova.
Euro 2024 qualifiers will be played between March and November this year, with the top two teams from each group qualifying directly for the championships.
The Euro 2024 tournament will be held from June 14 to July 14, 2024 in 10 cities in Germany, with the final played at Berlin's Olympiastadion.
Russia has been banned from competing in Euro 2024 over its invasion of Ukraine.
Portugal's Santos took over as Poland manager in January.
Poland failed to get past the group stage at the postponed Euro 2020 tournament, where they suffered a defeat to Slovakia before drawing with Spain and losing the decisive game against Sweden.
The Polish team made it through to the quarterfinals of the Euro 2016 championships in France, losing to Portugal on penalties.
EURO 2024 qualifying groups
Group A: Spain, Scotland, Norway, Georgia, Cyprus
Group B: Netherlands, France, Republic of Ireland, Greece, Gibraltar
Group C: Italy, England, Ukraine, North Macedonia, Malta
Group D: Croatia, Wales, Armenia, Turkey, Latvia
Group E: Poland, Czech Republic, Albania, Faroe Islands, Moldova
Group F: Belgium, Austria, Sweden, Azerbaijan, Estonia
Group G: Hungary, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Lithuania
Group H: Denmark, Finland, Slovenia, Kazakhstan, Northern Ireland, San Marino
Group I: Switzerland, Israel, Romania, Kosovo, Belarus, Andorra
Group J: Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Luxembourg, Slovakia, Liechtenstein
Source: IAR, PAP