Olivier Giroud opened the scoring for France in the 44th minute of the game at the Al-Thumama Stadium in Doha, and Kylian Mbappé added another goal in the 74th.
Mbappé put the French team 3-0 up in the 91st minute.
Poland goalkeeper Wojciech Szczęsny fails to save the 3-0 goal by France's Kylian Mbappé at Al-Thumama Stadium in Doha, Qatar, on Sunday. Photo: EPA/Abedin Taherkenareh
Star striker Robert Lewandowski scored a consolation goal for Poland, converting a penalty nine minutes into stoppage time.
Photo: EPA/Abedin Taherkenareh
France will play England on Saturday in the World Cup quarterfinals.
Meanwhile, the Poles will fly back home on Monday, officials said.
The Polish team had advanced to the last 16 of the tournament despite losing 0-2 to Argentina in its final group-stage game on November 30.
Poland had progressed to the knockout stages of the World Cup for the first time in 36 years, with four points from three group-stage games.
Poland, captained by Lewandowski and coached by manager Czesław Michniewicz, tied 0-0 with Mexico in their opening game at the World Cup in Qatar on November 22 and then beat Saudi Arabia 2-0 in their second fixture four days later.
Poland are ranked No. 26 worldwide by world football's governing body FIFA. Meanwhile, France are at No. 4 in the FIFA table.
Teams from 32 nations are scheduled to play a total of 64 matches at eight stadiums in Qatar during this year's World Cup, which kicked off on November 20 and runs until December 18.
According to a study by experts at London's Alan Turing Institute, Brazil are in the best position to win the World Cup in Qatar.
Poland qualified for the 2022 World Cup after defeating Sweden 2-0 in a playoff at home in late March.
The Polish team failed to advance to the knockout phase of the 2018 World Cup in Russia after losing 1-2 to Senegal and 0-3 to Colombia in the group stage. Poland won their final game, beating Japan 1-0, but finished bottom of their Group H and made an early exit from the tournament more than four years ago.
Poland finished third in the 1974 World Cup in West Germany and were also third in Spain in 1982.
Source: TVP, IAR, PAP
Click on the audio player above for a report by Radio Poland's Agnieszka Bielawska.