The decision was approved on Wednesday by the Director General of UNESCO, Audrey Azoulay. It was welcomed by Olga Tokarczuk, who earlier this month won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
"It may be somewhat strange for me to say but these are the most extraordinary weeks for the literary history of Wrocław. I’m delighted with the UNESCO decision," she said.
Tokarczuk has two homes – in Wrocław and the village of Krajanów, some 100 kilometres south of the city.
Wrocław is the second Polish city to be named a UNESCO City of Literature, after Kraków.
Łódz, central Poland, is a UNESCO City of Film and the country's southern city of Katowice a UNESCO City of Music.
The UNESCO Creative Cities Network now counts a total of 246 cities. Their mission is to place creativity and the creative economy at the core of their urban development plans.